Marshal Macdonald

Marshal Jacques-Etienne-Joseph-Alexander Macdonald, Duke of Tarente (1765-1840)


Argument of the Chapter
“Marshal Jacques-Etienne-Joseph-Alexander Macdonald”

         Early years. The Parisian military school. Service in Dutch regiment. Promotion. Macdonald as the chief of staff in the army of general Bernonville. The battle at Jemappes. Transfer to the Northern Army. Treachery in Lille. Macdonald as a division commander. Macdonald under the suspicions in royalism. Intercession of the general Souham.
        The grade of A grade of the brigadier general. Campaign of the year 1794 in Holland and Belgium. Macdonald as a division general. Analysis of his campaigns. Expeditionary force commander in Holland and Germany. Macdonald as the military governor of Rome in 1798. War with Neapolitan kingdom. Conflict with Army commander Championnet. Macdonald as the Neapolitan army commander.
        The Italian campaign of 1799. Creation of new coalitions. A conflict with the Directory on concerning joint command with general Ģīreau. Successful retreat maneuver to Ņīscane. Defeat at the river Ņrebbia. Style of Suvorow. Resignation. Transfer to Helvetian army of general Ģąssena. Unsuccessful storm of Zurich. Defeat of the Korsakoff’s Russian Corps. Analysis of Macdonald’s actions. Macdonald as the general - inspector of infantry. Macdonald as the Reserve Corps commander in Tyrol. The plan of the Alps crossing. Unprecedented transition through mountain pass Splugen. Ambassadorial mission to Copenhagen in 1801. Marriage on the widow of general Joubert. Support of the general Ģīreau.
        Refusal in marshal baton. Macdonald as the great Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor. The description of structure of an Legion. Discharge from military businesses. Macdonald as the Corp. commander of the Italian army of Beauharnais in 1807. The plans of the parties for operational actions in Northern Italy. The introduction into a post. Macdonald helps Beauharnais during battle on Raab. Conflict with Beauharnais. Connection with the basic forces of the Grand Army. The battle order on Wagram. Unsuccessful frontal attack per the first day. The plans of the parties for continuation of battle. Famous attack of division square of Macdonald. Receiving of marshal’s baton and Dukedom of Tarente. Marshal Macdonald as the governor of Styria.
        Marshal Macdonald as a Corps commander in Spain. Marshal Macdonald as the general-governor of Katalonia. Defeat from insurgents at Bisbales. Local failure at Figuerrola. Barbarous burning of Manressa city. Unsuccessful storm of Tarragona.
        Preparation for Russian campaign of 1812. Offensive to Riga and St.-Petersburg. The first wedge between French and Prussian commanders. The siege of Daugavpils. Retreat. Treachery of general York. Analysis of marshal Macdonald’s actions in the Russian campaign. Conflict with marshal Ģurat.
        The plans for the campaign of 1813. Victory over Prussians at Merserburg. Participation in battle at Lutzen. The battle at Bautzen. The attempts of Bluecher’s forces encirclement. A rough tactical mistake and heavy defeat on the river Katzbach. Consequences for Grand Army of Defeat at Katzbach. A concentration of forces at Leipzig. «The Battle of the Nations». Actions of marshal Macdonald on the right flank on October 16. Defensive battle on October 17. Treachery of Saxons. Retreat through Elster. The bridge is blown up by a mistake. The Leipzig trap. Marshal Macdonald swimming overcomes the river. Rout of Bavarian covering force on the river Źitzig. Victory at Hanau.
        Preparation for campaign of 1814. Retreat maneuver from Liege to Mesier-on-Ģaas. Attempts of Blucher to encircle marshal Macdonald. Counter-strike at Montmirial. Temporary command by all French troops. Retreat to Paris. Unsuccessful attempts to encircle Schwartzenderg. Courageous maneuver of Napoleon to Saint-Dezier. Renunciation of Napoleon. Analysis of marshal Macdonald’s actions in campaign of 1814.
        The favour of Louis XVIII. Marshal Ģącdonald does not betray new sovereign. The outstanding state figure during the Second Restoration. Death. Analysis of military leader’s career of marshal Macdonald.

Maps of the Chapter “Marshal Jacques-Etienne-Joseph-Alexander Macdonald”

1. Battle at Jemmapes.
2. Battle at Trebbia.
3. Campaign of Suvorow (1799).
4. Macdonald’s Corps at Wagram.
5. Battle at Wagram (day 1).
6. Battle at Wagram (day 2).
7. Battle at Lutzen (situation at morning).
8. Battle at Lutzen (situation at afternoon).
9. Battle at Bautzen.
10. The second Saxonian campaign (1813_.
11. Battle at Katzbach.
12. The Campaign at Paris, 1814.

Illustrations of the Chapter “Marshal Jacques-Etienne-Joseph-Alexander Macdonald”

1. French invasion into Holland.
2. Portrait of general Dumurrier.
3. Portrait of general Championnet.
4. Transportation of wounded French soldiers.
5. Splugen pass.
6. Portrait of general Moreau.
7. Portrait of Eugene Beauharnais.
8. Portrait of marshal Macdonald.
9. The Duke’s of Tarente Arms.
10. The uniforms of Prussian forces at Macdonald’s Corps:
    • chasseur;
    • tambour;
    • sapper.
11. Macdonald, Duke of Tarente.
12. Portrait of general Shepelev.
13. The French retreat from Russia.
14. Battle at Katzbach.
15. Portrait of general Sebastiani.
16. Portrait of Field Marshal Wrede.
17. Battle at Hanau.
18. Portrait of general Ameil.
19. Portrait of general Saxen-Weimar.
20. Marshal Macdonald’s grave.

The structure of military-historical monograph
«Military campaigns of Napoleon’s marshals»

Chapter 1 – marshal Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte Corvo (1763-1844).
Chapter 2 – marshal Louis Alexander Berthier, Prince of Neuchatel, Prince of Walange, Prince of Wagram (1753 – 1815).
Chapter 3 – marshal Jean Baptiste Bessieres, Duke of Istria (1768-1813).
Chapter 4 – marshal Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune (1763-1815).
Chapter 5 – marshal Victor Claude Victor-Perrin, Duke of Belluno (1764 – 1841).
Chapter 6 – marshal Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr, marquess (1764-1830).
Chapter 7 – ģąšųąė Emmanuel Robert de Grouchy, marquess (1766-1847).
Chapter 8 – marshal Louis Nicolas Davout, Duke of Auerstaedt, Prince of Eckmuhl (1770-1823).
Chapter 9 – marshal Jean Baptiste Jourdan, count (1762-1833).
Chapter 10 – marshal Francois Etienne Christophe Kellermann, Duke de Valmy (1735-1820).
Chapter 11 – marshal Jean Lannes, Duke of Montebello (1769-1809).
Chapter 12 – marshal Francois Joseph Lefebvre, Duke of Danzig (1755-1820).
Chapter 13 – marshal Jacques-Etienne-Joseph-Alexander Macdonald, Duke of Tarente (1765-1840).
Chapter 14 – marshal Auguste Frederic Louis de Viesse Marmont, Duke of Ragusa (1774-1852).
Chapter 15 – marshal Andre Massena, Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling (1758-1817).
Chapter 16 – marshal Bon Adrien Jeannot Moncey, Duke of Conegliano (1754-1842).
Chapter 17 – marshal Adolphe Edouard Casimir Joseph Mortier, Duke of Treviso (1768-1835).
Chapter 18 – marshal Joachim Murat, King of Naples (1767-1815).
Chapter 19 – marshal Michel Ney, Duke of Elchingen, Prince of Moskwa (1769-1815).
Chapter 20 – marshal Pierre Francois Charles Augerau, Duke of Castiglione (1757-1816)
Chapter 21 – marshal Dominique-Catherine Perignon, marquis de Grenade (1754-1818).
Chapter 22 – marshal Joseph Antoine Ponyatovsky, prince of Poland (1763-1813).
Chapter 23 – marshal Jean-Mathieu Philiber Serurier (1742-1819).
Chapter 24 – marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, Duke af Dalmatia (1769-1851).
Chapter 25 – marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet, Duke of Albufera (1770-1826).
Chapter 26 – marshal Nicolas-Charles Oudinot, Duke of Reggio (1767-1847).

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