Marshal Murat

Marshal  Joachim Murat, King of Naples (1767-1815)

 


Argument of the Chapter
“Marshal Joachim Murat”

         Early years. Preparation for church career. The patronage of Talleyrands family. Study in Theological Seminary of Toulouse. Service in the Chasseur Regiment of Ardennes. Return to the seminary. The Revolution. Murat as a cavalryman of the Constitutional Guards. The first grade of officer. Participation in suppression of the royalists rebellion in Paris on Vandemiaire, 13. Acquaintance with Bonaparte. Murat as a chief of a brigade.
        Italian campaign of 1796. Murat as the first aide-de-camp of commander Bonaparte. First victory at Mondovi. Murat delivers to Paris the text of the peace treaty with Piedmont and trophies. Grade of the brigade general. Victory at Borgetto. Suppression of the Italian rebels in Genoa. The plan to seize the Mantua fortress. Unsuccessful assault. Tactical novelties during the battle at Bassano. Analysis of Murat’s actions in campaign of 1796. Three-day battle on Rivoli plateau.
        Campaign of 1797. Murat as a brigade commander of Bernadotte’s division. The battle at Tagliamento river. A plenipotentiary representative on Rastatt Congress. Murat as a cavalry commander of the Coast Army. Preparation for the Egyptian campaign. Taking vanguard positions on Malta due to Murat’s boldness and impudence. Landing in Egypt. Occupation of Alexandria. The battle at Pyramids. General Leclerc’s vanguard saves from captivity. Analysis of tactical actions of the French cavalry in Egypt. Plans of the sides to preparation of campaign of 1799 in Egypt and Syria. The Syrian campaign. Victories at Khan-Yusuf and El Arish. The battle at Gaza. Destruction of the French fleet by the Britains. Beginning of the French siege of the Saint-Jean-d’Acre fortress. Actions of Damascus Pasha’s army. The battle at Aboukir. Personal victory of Murat in the battle with Mustapha Pasha. Return to France.
        Participation in Brumair revolution. Resoluteness in Committee of Elders. A post of the Consular Guards inspector-general. Marriage to the Napoleon sister. Murat as the Italian army cavalry commander. Operational tasks of the French cavalry. Occupation of Milan. Crossing the Poe river. The battle at Ģarengo. Brilliant cavalry attack of Murat’s brigades. Murat as the Italian army commander. Armistice with the king of Naples. An audience with the Pope.
        Murat as the Observation Corps commander in the Southern France and Zisalpians republics. Conflict with Napoleon because of Murat’s independent economic projects for Milan. Preparation of Murat and Ney armies for occupation of Switzerland. Murat as the military governor of Paris. Affair of Duc Enghien. Marshal of the Empire. Title of Prince and Grand Admiral of France.
        Austrian campaign of 1805. Review of operational plans. Cavalry covering of the Grand Army. The contribution of marshal Murat’s cavalry in the reconnaissance of the future battle-fields. Ulm maneuver of the Grand Army. Defeating Auffenberg’s column at Wertingen by Murat’s cavalry. Marshal Murat as temporary commander of entire left wing Grand Army. Unsuccessful maneuver on Danube. Quarrel with marshal Ney. General Mack’s capitulation. Vigorous pursue of the rests of receding hostile armies. Encirclement of general Wernek’s Austrian column at Trahtelfilgen. Innovation of general Baraguey d'Hilliers. Skilful retreat of general Kutusow’s Russian army. Unessential march of marshal Murat’s cavalry at Vienna. Severe rearguard action against Russian at Amstetten. The Russians deceive Murat. The battle at Hollabrunn. Preparation to the Austerlitz battle. French cavalry maneuvers. Defeat of Liechtenstein and Russian Cavalry Guards. Marshal Murat the Grand Duke of Cleve and Berg. Political fuss around of the Duchy of Berg, French occupation of the Duchy.
        Diplomatic maneuvers before the Prussian campaign of 1806. The operational plans of the Prussians. The battle at Saalfeld. The battle at Jena. Grandiose pursue of the defeated opponent by marshal Murat’s cavalry. Encirclement of rests of Hohenlohe’s Prussian troops. Capture of Magdeburg, Prentzlau and Stettin fortresses. Signing of the French-Prussian armistice in Charlottenbourg.
        The Polish campaign of 1806-1807. Offensive of field-marshal Kamensky’s Russian Army. The French occupation of Warsaw. Solemn entrance of marshal Murat into the Polish capital. New operational plan of Napoleon. Marshal Murat’s cavalry plays again the veiling role during maneuvers of the Grand Army Corps. Forming of assault cavalry groups from the forces of marshals Murat and Bessieres. The battle at Golymin. Unexpected Russian counterstrike and counter-plan of Napoleon. Reconnaissance at Allenstein. The face-to-face fight at Jonkowo. Pursue of receding Bennigsen’s Russian army. Prelude to Preysisch-Eylau battle. Famous Murat' cavalry attack. Unsuccessful rearguard action at Gottau. Conflict with general Savary. The battle at Friedland. Marshals Murat and Soult miss general Lestocq’s Prussian Corps at Koenigsberg. The peace treaty of Tilzit.
        The Pyrenees campaign. Arrival of marshal Murat in Burgos with 25-thousand Corps as a reinforcement for the French Observation Corps of Moncey and Dupont. Main offensive of the French at Madrid. Marshal Murat as the Commander-in-Chief of all French troops in Spain. The desire to take the Spanish throne. National revolt of May 2 in Madrid. Retaliatory expedition in Valencia. Analysis of marshal Murat actions in Spain. Marshal Murat as the King of Naples. Reforms of the Neapolitan army. Family problems. Preparation of landing operation on the Capri island. The description of the English naval base. Hudson Law. Landing to the Capri island. General Lamarque. The battle for Marina Grande emplacement. Capitulation of the Brits. Unsuccessful landing in Sicily. Court intrigues. Cooling down relations with Napoleon.
        Prepearing for the Russian campaign of 1812. Intrusion into Russia. Defeat of the French cavalry vanguard by Platow’s cossacks. French occupation of Vilno. Pursue of the receding I Western Army of the Russians. Incident with general Montbrun. Occupation of Drissa camp. The battle at Ostrovna. Marshal Murat as the commander of the Grand Army Vanguard. The plan of encirclement of the Russian army. The battle for Smolensk. The battle at Valutina defile. The battle at Borodino. The requests to enter Imperial Guards into the battle are rejected by Napoleon. Occupation of Moscow. Burning down Moscow. Rastopchin, the governor of Moscow. Tarutino maneuver of Kutusow. Marshal Ģurat misses Russian army. Retreat of the Grand Army. Defeat of general Sebastiani’s French cavalry Corps. The battle at Voronowo. «The Sacred Squadron». A military council in Smargony.
        Marshal Ģurat as the Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army. Retreat at Poznan. Handing over the command to Beauharnais and departure to Naples. Breakup with Napoleon owing to own ambitions and intrigues of the allies. Marshal Murat rejects the British ultimatum. Marshal Murat as the commander of Reserve cavalry. The battle at Dresden. Constraining actions against Bohemian armies of Schwarzånberg. Local victories at Valdkirchen and Bohrn. Analysis of marshal Murat’s actions during the campaign of 1813. An opposition with Army of Schwartzenberg. Leipzig – the Battle of the Nations. Ģąssed use of French cavalry on October 16. Desertion from the Grand Army. Negotiation with the allies.
        Maneuvers against Corps of Eugene Beauharnais in Northern Italy. Marshal Murat makes advances with Louis XVIII Burbon hopes to take the throne of Naples. Anti-Austrian Campaign of 1815. Defeat at Tolentino. Exile. The letter of cardinal Borgese. The trap. The military court. Death. Analysis of military leader’s career of marshal Murat.

Maps of the Chapter “Marshal Joachim Murat”

1. French disposition in the battle at Pyramides.
2. Central Europe (October 9-11,1805).
3. Maneuver at Ulm.
4. Strategic covering of Grand Army (December, 1805).
5. March to Olomouc.
6. Battle at Lubino.
7. Battle at Maloyaroslawetz.
8. Battle at Tolentino.

Illustrations of the Chapter “Marshal Joachim Murat”

1. Vandemiaire in Paris.
2. Murat as the soldier of good luck.
3. Portrait of general Junot.
4. Portrait of Mourad Bey.
5. Brumaire, 18.
6. Portrait of Duke d’Enghien.
7. The Austrian infantryman’s uniform of general Kerpen’s force.
8. Portrait of general Makk.
9. Portrait of general Klein.
10. The Arms of Great Duke of Berg.
11. Murat’s cavalry in the battle at Jena.
12. Portrait of general Milhaud.
13. Capitulation of Prussian Field-Marshal Bluecher, 1806.
14. Portrait of Prince Golytzin.
15. Portrait of general Uvarow.
16. Portrait of Spahish prince Ferdinand.
17. Portrait of Spahish king Charles IV.
18. Defense of Monteleyn Palace, May 2, 1808.
19. Murat in Spain.
20. Portrait of Hudson Lowe.
21. Portrait of general Lamarque.
22. The Neapolitan Guard infantry’s uniforms:
     • Grenadier;
     • Chasseur-velite;
     • Foot velite;
     • Sapper.
23. The Neapolitan Guard cavalry’s uniforms:
     • Horse chasseur;
     • Cavalry-Guard;
     • Cuirassier;
     • Uhlan.
24. Portrait of Salichetti.
25. Murat during the Russian campaign.
26. Portrait of general Montbrun.
27. Portrait of general Konownitzyn.
28. Portrait of general Dokhturov.
29. Portrait of general Orlov-Denisov.
30. Portrait of general Belliard.
31. Portrait of Queen Caroline.
32. The Grand Army cavalry’s uniforms:
     • Marechal de logis cuirassier;
     • Officer uhlan;
     • Carabinier;
     • Guard chasseur.
33. Portrait of Austrian minister Metternich.
34. Marshal Murat’s grave.


The structure of military-historical monograph
«Military campaigns of Napoleon’s marshals»



Preface.
Introduction.
Chapter 1 – marshal Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte Corvo (1763-1844).
Chapter 2 – marshal Louis Alexander Berthier, Prince of Neuchatel, Prince of Walange, Prince of Wagram (1753 – 1815).
Chapter 3 – marshal Jean Baptiste Bessieres, Duke of Istria (1768-1813).
Chapter 4 – marshal Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune (1763-1815).
Chapter 5 – marshal Victor Claude Victor-Perrin, Duke of Belluno (1764 – 1841).
Chapter 6 – marshal Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr, marquess (1764-1830).
Chapter 7 – ģąšųąė Emmanuel Robert de Grouchy, marquess (1766-1847).
Chapter 8 – marshal Louis Nicolas Davout, Duke of Auerstaedt, Prince of Eckmuhl (1770-1823).
Chapter 9 – marshal Jean Baptiste Jourdan, count (1762-1833).
Chapter 10 – marshal Francois Etienne Christophe Kellermann, Duke de Valmy (1735-1820).
Chapter 11 – marshal Jean Lannes, Duke of Montebello (1769-1809).
Chapter 12 – marshal Francois Joseph Lefebvre, Duke of Danzig (1755-1820).
Chapter 13 – marshal Jacques-Etienne-Joseph-Alexander Macdonald, Duke of Tarente (1765-1840).
Chapter 14 – marshal Auguste Frederic Louis de Viesse Marmont, Duke of Ragusa (1774-1852).
Chapter 15 – marshal Andre Massena, Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling (1758-1817).
Chapter 16 – marshal Bon Adrien Jeannot Moncey, Duke of Conegliano (1754-1842).
Chapter 17 – marshal Adolphe Edouard Casimir Joseph Mortier, Duke of Treviso (1768-1835).
Chapter 18 – marshal Joachim Murat, King of Naples (1767-1815).
Chapter 19 – marshal Michel Ney, Duke of Elchingen, Prince of Moskwa (1769-1815).
Chapter 20 – marshal Pierre Francois Charles Augerau, Duke of Castiglione (1757-1816)
Chapter 21 – marshal Dominique-Catherine Perignon, marquis de Grenade (1754-1818).
Chapter 22 – marshal Joseph Antoine Ponyatovsky, prince of Poland (1763-1813).
Chapter 23 – marshal Jean-Mathieu Philiber Serurier (1742-1819).
Chapter 24 – marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, Duke af Dalmatia (1769-1851).
Chapter 25 – marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet, Duke of Albufera (1770-1826).
Chapter 26 – marshal Nicolas-Charles Oudinot, Duke of Reggio (1767-1847).
Conclusions.
Literature.


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