Marshal Massena

Marshal Andre Massena, Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling (1758-1817)

 


Argument of the Chapter
“Marshal Andre Massena”


         Early years. Formation of character. The young adventurer. Service in Royal Italian regiment. The first grade of petty-officer. The decree of military minister Segur. Resignation. Revolution. The legislative Assembly equalizes chances of officer grades reception. Massena as a soldier of National Guards of Antibes.
        The campaign of 1792 in Piedmont. Intrusion into the territory of Princedom Monaco. Successful defensive fights on emplacements at Chateauneuf and Tourettes. The strategic review of campaign against Piedmont. Conflict with divisional commander general Dagebert. The campaign of 1793. The French Southern army’s offensive. A grade of the brigade general. The battle for high-mountainous emplacement Fougasse. Participation in the siege of Toulon fortress. Storm of units of the Toulon defense. A grade of the division general.
        The Italian campaign of 1794. The French operational plan. Success against Piedmontians at the forts Saordgio and Fetz. Mastering of the seaside Alpes main range. The French offensive at Savona. The victory at Colletto. Retreat to the winter quarters. Campaign of 1795. New Army commander general Kellermann. The battle for Melogno heights. The French retreat. Defense of redoubt at Loano. Kellermann is replaced on Scherer. Successful summer defensive fights. Successful offensive to Saint Giakomo. The common analysis of campaign results.
        The Italian campaign of 1796. The common plan of Bonaparte. The operational tasks of army vanguard under command of general Massena. Austro-Piedmontian Army of Beaulieu. The first victory at Fereiro. False maneuver and capture of Dego. Unexpected counter-strike of Wukassowitch. A new offensive plan. The Cerasco armistice. Distracting maneuvers while crossing the Poe river. The battle for the bridge Lodi. Occupation of Milan. Changes in Austrian command. The offensive plan of Wurmser. The fortified emplacement on the Rivoli plateau. Defensive fight against Quasdanovich. Bonapart goes against Wurmser. Variable success at Lonato. The cunning plan of battle at Castiglione. The utopian strategic plans of a Directory. Victory at Bassano.
        Wurmser is blocked in Ģąntua. Alvintzi’s offensive with the purpose of Mantua deblocking. Defeat at Caldiero. Retreat to Verone. The witty plan of Napoleon. Ģąssena crushed Quasdanovich at Porchile. Reasonable crossing the Adidge river at Ronco. Alvintzi’s defeat at Ąrcole. The second offensive at Alvintzi. Batle at Rivoli. Ģąssena hardly escaped captivity. Capitulation of the bestead force of Provera. Defeat of Lusinian division at Serraville. Victories at Ņravis and Malborgetto. Storm of Friezach. Honourable mission to Paris. Massena marks in Derector. Occuping force commander in Poepe States in 1798. The insatiable robber and bribe taker. A response in Paris.
        Massena as the Helvetian Army Commander. The operational plans for campaign of 1799. Offensive against a grouping of Hotze. The general Oudinot. Defeat of the Auffenberg’s force at Zizers. Mastering by the Rhine valley. Attack on Fieldkierh. Jellalic puts considerable counter-strike. Archduke Charles has broken approach of the Danube Army of Jourdan. Massena as the Danube army commander. The first battle at Zurich. The common analysis of campaign of 1799. The second battle at Zurich. Suvorow accepts comand by the Allies Swiss Army. The operational plans of the parties. The famous Suvorow’s transition through the Alpes. Combat of Suvorow and Massena. Defeat of the Russian Corps of Korsakow. Analysis of the second campaign.
        Massena as the Italian Army commander. The common strategic conditions to the beginning of campaign. Strategies of the French and Austrian command. The general position of the sides by the moment of campaign opening. Ģelas begins the offensive. The Massena’s army is cut on two parts. Soult’s Corps is isolated in Genoa. A beginning of Genoa siege. A deceit of the military commissaries. The description of a fortress Genoa. Unsuccessful attempt of breaking the encirclement. Actions of Corps commander general Soult. Persistent defense of forts. Successful sortie against Ītt. Famine in the city. A case with a courier. The Napoleon’s promise to render assistance. The Austrians tighten the ring round. Negotiations for conditions of honourable capitulation. Surrender and honourable capitulation of Genoa.
        Massena as the Italian Army commander. The Grand Knight-Commander of Honourable Legion and deputy of the Legislative Corps. Marshal of the Empire. The Austrian campaign of 1805. Position and operational tasks of marshal Massena’s Italian army. The Austrian army of Archduke Charles. Operational plans of the Austrians. Offensive of the Italian army to Verone. Prompt capture of the Verone bridge. The battle at Saint Michel. Rearguard action at Caldiero. Battalion commander Hugo. Attempt of the Austrian right flank envelopment. New French attacks. Retreat of the Austrians. Defeat of the Austrian rear guard at Pojano. Capture of Gradiska by French, continuation of pursuing Austrians. Occupation of the strategic point Triest. Marshal Massena goes to the aid of Saint-Cyr, besieging Venice fortress. Analysis of marshal Masena’s actions in the campaign of 1805. Marshal Massena’s Army transformation to Army Corps of the Grand Army. Military-political fuss around the throne of Naples.
        Marshal Massena as the Neapolitan Army commander. Italian campaign of 1806. Intrusion on the territory of the Neapolitan kingdom. Marshal Ģąssena promotes Joseph on the Neapolitan throne. Siege of a fortress Gaete. Retaliatory expedition in Calabria for route of Fra-Diavolo’s insurgent groups. Brief history of Fra-Diavolo. Suppression of the anti-French revolt. Capture of Reggio and Scilla. Marshal Massena comes back to France. Temporary commander of the army Corps of marshal Lannes. Campaign of 1807. Battles at Pultusk and Ostrolenka. An accident during the hunt. Marshal Massena as the Duke of Rivoli.
        The Austrian campaign of 1809. The operational plans in Northern Italy. An incompetent command of marshal Berthier. The battle for the bridge at Landschut. Crossing Danube at Ebersberg. Aspern-Essling battle. Skilled retrograde maneuver. Wagram commands the battle from his wagon. Pinning down Bissamberg’s flank of the Austrian army. Marshal Ģąssena corrects mistakes of marshal Bernadotte. Destruction of the Kolowrat’s Corps. Ģąssena, the junior. The battle at Znaim. The description of Znaim fortress. Greed. Prince of Essling. Marshal Massena as the Portuguese Army commander. Major Pelet, an authorized representative of marshal Massena.
        The Portuguese campaign of 1810. The French offensive at Cuidad Rodrigo. Counter maneuver of Wellington. Capture of Conception fort. Assault operation against fortress Almeida. Development of face-to-face approach of marshal Massena’s army. Retreat from Almeida. The unit transport of the Portuguese army is defenseless. Marshal Ģąssena thinks of the women, rather than about battle actions more. Successful retrograde maneuver of Wellington. Defeat under Bussaco. An output to fortified lines Ņīrres-Vedras. Descriptions of fortifications. The stubborn fights at Sobral. Unsuccessful attempts of break the enemy defense.
        Actions of the Army Corps of generals Drouet D'Erlon and Claparode. Sudden death of Spanish Commander-in-Chief La Romana. Marshal Massena’s retreat from Portugal. Ney’s successful rearguard action against Wellington in Pombal. Marshal Massena as the master of retreat maneuver. Break between marshals Massena and Ney. «Red Lion» leaves the army. The new plan of the French advance upon Fuentes d'Onoro. Retreat to the French borders.
        Resignation. Out of job. Toulon military district commander in 1813-1814. Transition to the side of Louis XVIII. Non-participation in adventure of One Hundred Days. Death. Analysis of military leader’s career of marshal Massena.

Maps of the Chapter “Marshal Andre Massena”

1. Situation at Nothern Italy (April – December, 1796).
2. Battles at Montenotte, Millesimo, Dego and Mondovi.
3. Battle at Lodi bridge.
4. Situation at Lake Garda (September 1-13, 1796).
5. Situation at Lake Garda (November 14-17, 1796).
6. Situation at Lake Garda (January 7-14, 1797).
7. Battle at Rivoli.
8. The battle-ground inSwitzerland.
9. Crossing the Rhein.
10. Crossing over pass Saint Gothard.
11. Switzerland.
12. Fortess Genoa.
13. Central Europe (November 25, 1805).
14. Southern Germany (April 22 – May 22, 1809).
15. Maneuvers at Essling.
16. Disposition at Essling.
17. Torres-Vedras line.
18. Battle at Fuentes d’Onoro.

Illustrations of the Chapter “Marshal Andre Massena”

1. Divisional general Massena.
2. Massena as the general of Republic.
3. Battle at Loano.
4. The Austrian infantryman’s uniform of general Woukassowitch’s force.
5. Portrait of general Liptay.
6. The Austrian infantryman’s uniform of general Reuss’s force.
7. Portrait of general Oxssey.
8. Rampon in a uniform of Grand Army’s general.
9. Portrait of general Guyot.
10. The Austrian infantryman’s uniform of general Jellalic’s force.
11. The Austrian infantryman’s uniform of general Reuss’s force.
12. Portrait of marshal Massena.
13. Portrait of general Molitor.
14. Portrait of general Camus.
15. Portrait of general Pully.
16. Portrait of Archduke Charles.
17. Portrait of general Vallongue.
18. The Arms of Massena.
19. Portrait of Archduke John.
20. Portrait of general Roesenberg.
21. The Austrian infantryman’s uniform of general Lindenau’s force.
22. Portrait of general Vogelsang.
23. The Austrian infantryman’s uniform of general Vogelsang’s force.
24. Portrait of general d’Espagne.
25. Portrait of general Crawford.
26. Portrait of general Marchand.
27. Portrait of general Picton.
28. The remains of fortification line Torres-Vedras.
29. Portrait of British King George III.
30. Marshal Massena.
31. Marshal Massena’s grave.


The structure of military-historical monograph
«Military campaigns of Napoleon’s marshals»



Preface.
Introduction.
Chapter 1 – marshal Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte Corvo (1763-1844).
Chapter 2 – marshal Louis Alexander Berthier, Prince of Neuchatel, Prince of Walange, Prince of Wagram (1753 – 1815).
Chapter 3 – marshal Jean Baptiste Bessieres, Duke of Istria (1768-1813).
Chapter 4 – marshal Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune (1763-1815).
Chapter 5 – marshal Victor Claude Victor-Perrin, Duke of Belluno (1764 – 1841).
Chapter 6 – marshal Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr, marquess (1764-1830).
Chapter 7 – ģąšųąė Emmanuel Robert de Grouchy, marquess (1766-1847).
Chapter 8 – marshal Louis Nicolas Davout, Duke of Auerstaedt, Prince of Eckmuhl (1770-1823).
Chapter 9 – marshal Jean Baptiste Jourdan, count (1762-1833).
Chapter 10 – marshal Francois Etienne Christophe Kellermann, Duke de Valmy (1735-1820).
Chapter 11 – marshal Jean Lannes, Duke of Montebello (1769-1809).
Chapter 12 – marshal Francois Joseph Lefebvre, Duke of Danzig (1755-1820).
Chapter 13 – marshal Jacques-Etienne-Joseph-Alexander Macdonald, Duke of Tarente (1765-1840).
Chapter 14 – marshal Auguste Frederic Louis de Viesse Marmont, Duke of Ragusa (1774-1852).
Chapter 15 – marshal Andre Massena, Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling (1758-1817).
Chapter 16 – marshal Bon Adrien Jeannot Moncey, Duke of Conegliano (1754-1842).
Chapter 17 – marshal Adolphe Edouard Casimir Joseph Mortier, Duke of Treviso (1768-1835).
Chapter 18 – marshal Joachim Murat, King of Naples (1767-1815).
Chapter 19 – marshal Michel Ney, Duke of Elchingen, Prince of Moskwa (1769-1815).
Chapter 20 – marshal Pierre Francois Charles Augerau, Duke of Castiglione (1757-1816)
Chapter 21 – marshal Dominique-Catherine Perignon, marquis de Grenade (1754-1818).
Chapter 22 – marshal Joseph Antoine Ponyatovsky, prince of Poland (1763-1813).
Chapter 23 – marshal Jean-Mathieu Philiber Serurier (1742-1819).
Chapter 24 – marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, Duke af Dalmatia (1769-1851).
Chapter 25 – marshal Louis Gabriel Suchet, Duke of Albufera (1770-1826).
Chapter 26 – marshal Nicolas-Charles Oudinot, Duke of Reggio (1767-1847).
Conclusions.
Literature.


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